Osteoporosis (osteoporosis), which comes from the combination of the Greek words osteon (bone) and poros (small hole), is a common metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis, which usually starts after the age of 45 and increases in frequency with age ; It is among the common disorders during menopause with the decrease in estrogen hormone. With osteoporosis in the body, bones that are normally healthy, dense and strong become thinner and brittle by losing their density. When the necessary precautions are not taken for the condition, the bones become weaker and thinner, which leads to an increased risk of fractures.
Osteoporosis Risk Factors
- Inadequate calcium intake (during menopause or childhood)
- Inadequate intake of various vitamins and minerals (such as magnesium, zinc, copper, fluoride, vitamins C, K, A)
- Excessive consumption of protein, sodium, caffeine, alcohol, smoking
- Sedentary life
- Use of certain medications such as steroids (commonly used to treat asthma and arthritis) and thyroid hormone (in very high doses)
- Early menopause (before the age of 45)
- Genetic factors
Diagnosis of Osteoporosis
In osteoporosis, which is defined as a tendency to fracture in bones that develops with low bone density and deterioration in bone structure, the diagnosis is realized by quantitative measurement of bone mineral density. Bone density measurement, which is an effortless and economical measurement type for the patient, is a method that provides accurate and precise results about bone mass. The main purpose of the measurement is to quantify the amount of mineral loss in the bone.
Bone density measurement is determined as 1 per year for women at high risk of osteoporosis at menopause, and 2 per year for women at low risk. However, the frequency of the procedure may vary depending on the course of the disease and the treatment method applied to the patient.
Osteoporosis Treatment and Prevention Methods
In the treatment of osteoporosis, the patient is given types of drugs that reduce bone destruction (calcium, bisphosphonates, raloxifene, calcitonin and hormone replacement) and those that increase bone structure (fluorine, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D). However, it is extremely important for the patient to pay attention to his/her diet, to eat a diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, to benefit from the sun’s rays sufficiently, to move and exercise a lot, both to prevent the disease and to reduce the severity of the existing disease.