Urinary incontinence, which is more common in postmenopausal women, is the inability to hold urine against one’s own will and control. Urinary incontinence, which is an important health problem, negatively affects both the social life and hygienic health of women.
What Causes Urinary Incontinence in Women?
Approximately 10% to 30% of premenopausal women and 35% to 56% of postmenopausal women urinary incontinence can be observed in combination with genital organ prolapse. One of the most important causes of urinary incontinence is genetics. Urinary incontinence can also be seen in women who have had difficult childbirth, those who have had vaginal surgery in the past, and those with chronic respiratory diseases. Menopause, radiation therapy, prostate enlargement, urinary tract infections, hormone deficiency, weak pelvic floor muscles and chronic constipation are among the factors that cause urinary incontinence.
Urinary Incontinence Types
There are three types of urinary incontinence. These types vary depending on when and how the patient incontinences urine.
1 . Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI): It occurs as a result of movements that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as coughing, sneezing, laughing, running and jumping, lifting heavy loads.
2 . Urge Urinary Incontinence (UUI): It is caused by contraction of the bladder, sometimes for no reason, sometimes as a result of factors such as the sound of water or laughter.
3 . Overflow Type Urinary Incontinence: It occurs when the bladder cannot contract and empty due to various nerve diseases and diabetes.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence
In order to diagnose the type of urinary incontinence problem, a good history and examination of the patient is necessary. In addition, the patient’s medical history, bladder diary, urine test, measurement of residual urine after voiding, and pad test are also necessary for diagnosis. In the treatment of urinary incontinence, non-surgical treatment methods are primarily applied to the patient. These are kegel exercises (exercises to strengthen the muscles around the vagina), vaginal pessaries (devices to prevent sagging), electrical stimulation treatments (FESS) and drug treatments. If the patient’s condition does not respond to these treatment methods or if there is stress urinary incontinence, surgical treatment methods such as sling placement, burch colposuspension, artificial compression devices (balloon placement), artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) can be applied to the patient.